England - Early Modern Era
The Early Modern Era of England began during the reign of the Tudors. Italian members of the court introduced higher levels of art, education and schooling, bringing the Renaissance to England. This caused a general development of the country’s culture. It was during this time that England began to develop its naval abilities which, in turn, meant that they could now explore further than ever before. This exploration was prompted by the Ottoman Empire, which controlled the Mediterranean Sea, preventing trade with the East for all of the Christian states of Europe.
King Henry VIII of England reigned from 1509 to 1547.
One of the most famous monarchs of England,
he launched of the English Reformation and broke
with the Church in Rome, creating the
Church of England. He had six wives
including Anne Bole
While Queen Elizabeth I was in power, Sir Francis Drake (an English sea captain) defeated the Spanish Armada. England went on to found a colony in the Americas under Sir Walter Raleigh in 1585. This colony was named Virginia. At this time, England was competing with Spain for American territory. In addition, England was competing with France and Holland for territory in the east, where spices and textiles were to be found in abundance. All of this exploration and discovery was enabled by the development of the naval industry during this time.
The Early Modern Era was also the time in which the Great Fire of London roared through the country’s capital, decimating it. This occurred in 1666 and led to the complete rebuilding of London.
At this time, there were a number of different groups. The Tories were royalists, the Whigs were liberal and the Jacobites supported King James and his sons. The Tories supported King James II (a Catholic), who the Whigs killed in the Revolution of 1688. The Whigs then invited Prince William III (from Holland) to become the king. Then, England and Scotland agreed to unite, creating the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Some institutions remained separate, so that both countries were suitably accommodated.