England's Modern History
Once the Kingdom of Great Britain was established as such, various innovations in science and engineering meant that it progressed significantly. Various English initiatives and the Scottish Enlightenment played major roles in this development. Eventually, the British Empire became the largest of its kind ever in history.
Vintage engraving showing a scene from 19th Century London England.
Showing the steam cranes at Limehouse Dock
The concept of Britain’s strength and fortitude was reinforced by its relative stability throughout the French Revolution as well as its conquering of the Napoleonic forces (during the Napoleonic Wars) by both Lord Nelson (at sea) and the Duke of Wellington (on land). The united forces of Britain, Wales and Scotland felt a sense of invincibility as they remained victorious. Trade within Britain became a prestigious privilege and its navy and military forces were well respected the world over.
When World War I began in 1914, English soldiers fought for the United Kingdom as part of the Allies. Thousands of these troops were killed in battle. Despite this loss, England assumed the same role in World War II some 20 years later. After these wars, the development of technology (especially automobile-related technology) progressed in leaps and bounds.
England continues to be a major epicentre of industrial, economic, social and cultural import. It is a multilingual, multinational country that represents its complex history in the form of its heritage, its architecture, its art and its vast literary works.